SeaWeed Reference

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bullet "Seaweeds and Other Algae" , Food in China: A Cultural and Historical Inquiry, Chapter 6


bullet "Drugs from Seaweeds", Medical Hypotheses (Research Laboratory, Okinawa) S. Abdussalam


bullet "Effect of Sodium Alginate in Inhibiting Uptake of Radiostrontium by the Human Body", Nature, Vol. 208, 1985


bullet "Analysis of Inorganic and Organic-Bound Arsenic in Marine Brown Algae", Botanica Marina, 1983


bullet "The Consumption of Seaweed as a Protective Factor in the Etiology of Breast Cancer", Medical Hypotheses, 1981


bullet "Anticancer Activity of a Natural Product, Viva-Natural, Extracted from Undaria pinnatifida on Intra peritoneally Implanted Lewis Lung Carcinoma", Oncology, 1985


bullet "The Effect Of Dietary Or Intraperitoneally Injected Seaweed Preparations On The Growth Of Sarcoma-180 Cells Subcutaneously Implanted Into Mice", Elsevier Scientific Publications, 1986


bullet "Dietary Seaweed (Laminaria) And Mammary Carcinogenesis In Rats", Cancer Research, 1984


bullet "The Use Of Alginate In The Prevention And Treatment Of Radio-Strontium Toxicity", McGill Univ.


bullet "Application Of Metal-Binding Properties Of Marine Algae In Medicine", McGill Univ.


bullet "Electrolyte Content Of Salt-Replacement Seasonings", Journal of the American Dietetic Assoc. 1989


bullet "Evaluation Of The Use Of Sea Products In Nutrition Of Population Inhabiting Regions Under Rigid Radiation Control", Vopr-Pitan, 193


bullet "Bioavailability Of Magnesium Contained In Purple Laver (Asakusa-nori) By Rats With Scarce Magnesium, Being Evaluated From Serum Magnesium, Kidney Calcification, And Bone Magnesium Contents", Journal of Nutrition Science, Vitaminol, Tokyo, 1993


bullet "Identification Of Heterogeneous Antimutagenic Activities In The Extract Of Edible Brown Seaweeds, Laminaria japonica (Makonbu) And Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame) By The Umu Gene Expression System In Salmonella Typhimurium (Ta1535/psk1002)", Mutat-Res., 1993


bullet "Dietary Treatment of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome", Nippon-Rinsho, 1992


bullet "Nutritive Value of Marine Algae Laminaria japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, Nahrung, 1995


bullet "Dietary Factors and Cancer of the Colon and Rectum in a Population Based Case-Control Study in Shanghai", Chung-Hua-Liu-Hsing-Ping-Hsueh-Tsa-Chih, 1994


bullet "Suppressive Effects Of The Extracts Of Japanese Edible Seaweeds On Mutagen-induced Umu Gene Expression System In Salmonella Typhimurium (Ta1535/psk1002) And Tumor Promotor-dependent Ornithine Decarboxylase Induction In Balb/c 3T3 Fibroblast Cells", Cancer Letters, 1994


bullet "Digestibility and Energy Availability of Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) in Japan", Nippon-Eiseigaku-Zasshi,1991


bullet "A Comparative Case-Control Study of Colorectal Cancer and Adenoma", Japanese Journal of Cancer Research, 1990


bullet "A Study On The Anti-coagulant And Fibrinolytic Activities Of A Crude Fucoidan From The Edible Brown Seaweed Laminaria religiosa, With Special Reference To Its Inhibitory Effect On The Growth Of Sarcoma-180 Ascites Cells Subcutaneously Implanted In Mice", Kitasato Archives of Experimental Medicine, 1987


bullet "Anti-tumor Activity Of A Crude Fucoidan Fraction Prepared From The Roots Of Kelp (Laminaria Species)", Kitasato Archives of Experimental Medicine,1987


bullet "The Effect Of Adding Laminaria japonica To Food On The Long-term Effects When Combined With Radiation Injury", Gig-Sanit, 1993


bullet "Antitumor Activity And Immunological Properties Of Marine Algal Polysaccharides, Especially Fucoidan, Prepared From Sargassum thunbergii Of Phaeophyceae", Anti-Cancer Research, 1993


bullet "Antitumor Activity Of Low Molecular Weight Fucans Extracted From Brown Seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum", Anti-Cancer Research,1993


bullet "Mammalian Lignan Production From Various Foods", Nutr-Cancer, 1991


bullet "Effect Of Dietary Kelp On Liquid Peroxidation And Glutathione Peroxidase Activity In Livers Of Rats Given Breast Carcinogen DMBA", Nutr-Cancer,1991


bullet "Possible Anti-Tumor Promoting Properties Of Marine Algae And In Vivo Activity of Wakame Seaweed Extract", Biosci-Biotechnol-Biochem, 1992


bullet "Dietary Beta-Carotene And Cancer Of The Prostate A Case Control Study In Kyoto Japan", Cancer Research, 1988


bullet "Suppression Of I125I-Uptake In Mouse Thyroid By Seaweed Feeding: Possible Preventative Effect Of Dietary Seaweed On Internal Radiation Injury Of The Thyroid By Radioactive Iodine", Kitasato Archives of Experimental Medicine, 1992


bullet "Biosorption of Heavy Metals", Biotechnology Progress, 1995


bullet "Activation Of Murine Macrophages By Polysaccharide Fractions From Marine Algae (Porphyra yezoensis)", Biosci-Biotechnol-Biochem, 1993


bullet "Confirmation By Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Of Two Unusual Trans-3-Monoethylenic Fatty Acids From The Nova Scotian Seaweeds Palmaria Palmata And Chondrus crispus", Lipids, 1994


bullet "Alimentary Methods For Decreasing The Radiation Load Of The Body With Cesium And Strontium Radionucleides", Gig-Sanit, 1993


bullet "The Physiological Resistance Of The Teeth In White Rats To The Action Of Biologically Active Substances From Laminaria", Fiziol-Zh-SSSR-IM-I-M-Sechenova, 1991


bullet "The Influence Of Sulfate Content And Molecular Weight Of A Fucan Sulfate From The Brown Seaweed Ecklonia kurome On Its Antithrombin Activity", Throm-Res, 1991


bullet "Antileukemic Activity Of Viva-natural, A Dietary Seaweed Extract, On Rauscher Murine Leukemia In Comparison With Anti-HIV Agents, Azidothymidine, Dextran Sulfate, And Pentosan Sulfate", Cancer Letters, 1991


bullet "Light-harvesting Complexes Of Brown Algae. Biochemical Characterization And Immunological Relationships", FEBS-Lett., 1991


bullet "Biochemical Characterization of Algal Coated Vesicles, "Biochemie, 1990


bullet "Determination Of Mg And Zn Contents Of Naruto Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida)", Nippon,-Eiseigaku-Zashi, 1990


bullet "Hypoglycemic Activity Of Several Seaweed Extracts", Journal of Ethnopharmocology, 1989


bullet "Regional Differences In Gastric Cancer Mortality And Eating Habits Of People", Gan-No-Rinsho, 1986


bullet "Diagnosis And Treatment Of Thyroid Diseases", Horumon-To-Rinsho, 1983



Katherine L Tucker, Marian T Hannan, Honglei Chen, L Adrienne Cupples, Peter WF Wilson and Douglas P Kiel; Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women; American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, April 1999 Vol. 69, No. 4, 727-736  

Belinda S. O’Connell, MS, RD, LD Select Vitamins and Minerals in the Management of Diabetes 2001; Diabetes Spectrum 14:133-148


Timothy J. Maher, Ph.D. Sawyer Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Professor of Pharmacology, Dean, Research and Sponsored Programs, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Boston, MA , Chromium and Other Minerals in Diabetes Mellitus; www.Minerals and Diabetes.asp  

 Carol Simontacchi, CCN,Mineral Deficiencies And Food Cravings; MS Articles on Diabetic Symptoms

 Altura, Burton M., Ph.D., et al., Magnesium: growing in clinical importance. "Patient Care," January 15, 1994;130-136. As cited in Clinical Pearls 1994, pg. 329.  

 Clouatre, Dallas, Ph.D. Getting Lean with Anti-Fat Nutrients, Pax Publishing, CA, 1993, p. 22.

 Groff, James L., Sareen S. Gropper, Sara M. Hunt. Advanced Nutrition ad Human Metabolism. West Publishing Company, MN, 1995, p.373



 Hirayasu H, Yoshikawa Y, Tsuzuki S, Fushiki T.; Sulfated polysaccharides derived from dietary seaweeds increase the esterase activity of a lymphocyte tryptase; J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo); 2005; 51(6):475-7.

Irhimeh MR, Fitton JH, Lowenthal RM; Fucoidan ingestion increases the expression of CXCR4 on human CD34+ cells; Exp Hematol. 2007 Jun; 35(6):989-94.

Kuznetsova TA, Zaporozhets TS, Besednova NN, Shevchenko NM, Zviagintseva TN, Mamaev AN, Momot AP; Immunostimulating and anticoagulating activity of fucoidan from brown algae Fucus evanescens of Okhotskoe sea; Antibiot Khimioter 2003; 48(4):11-3.  

Nobutaka Suzukia, Ayako Fujimura, Takeshi Nagai, Iwao Mizumoto, Toshiaki Itami, Hideo Hatate, Takashi Nozawa, Norihisa Kato, Tateo Nomoto and Binkoh Yoda ;Antioxidative activity of animal and vegetable dietary fibers; BioFactors 2004; 21: 329–333

 Katsube T, Yamasaki Y, Iwamoto M, Oka S; Hyaluronidase-Inhibiting polysacharide isolated and purified from hot water extract of sporophyll of Undaria pinnatifida; Food Science and Technology Research 2003 Feb; 9(1):25-29.

Gustafson S; The influence of sulfated polysaccharides on the circulating levels of hyaluronan; Glycobiology. 1997 Dec; 7(8): 1209-14

Maruyama Hiroko; Tamauchi Hidekazu ; Iizuka Mariko; Nakano Takahisa; The Role of NK cells in Antitumor Activity of Dietary Fucoidan from Undaria pinnatifida Sporophylls (Mekabu); Planta Medica 2006 Oct; 72: 1415-1417

Leonid Gordin, M.D; Benefits of Modifilan; Cambridge, MA via web  

Hiroomi Funahashi, Tsuneo Imai,Takahiro Mase, Masanori Sekiya, Kazuki Yokoi, Hiromichi Hayashi, Arihiro Shibata, Takako Hayashi, Mikiko Nishikawa, Namiko Suda, Yatsuka Hibi, Yutaka Mizuno, Kyosuke Tsukamura, Akemi Hayakawa and Seiichi Tanuma; Seaweed Prevents Breast Cancer; Jpn. J. Cancer Res. May 2001: 92, 483–487,

Aisa Y, Miyakawa Y, Nakazato T, Shibata H, Saito K, Ikeda Y, Kizaki M.; Fucoidan induces apoptosis of human HS-sultan cells accompanied by activation of caspase-3 and down-regulation of ERK pathways; Am J Hematol. 2005 Jan; 78(1):7-14.

1996 18th Annual Conference of the Carbohydrate Symposium (August 19-21), the 69th Annual Proceedings of the Japanese Biochemical Society (August 26-30), and the 55th Annual Proceedings of the Japanese Cancer Society (October 10-12).

Masanori Sekiya, Hiroomi Funahashi, Kyosuke Tsukamura, Tsuneo Imai, Akemi Hayakawa, Tetsuya Kiuchi, Akimasa Nakao; Intracellular signaling in the induction of apoptosis in a human breast cancer cell line by water extract of Mekabu; Int J Clin Oncol 2005; 10:122–126

Jane Teas, Ph.D. Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health University of South Carolina; Can taking seaweed help fight lung cancer?; Power Point Presentation, footnoted (note: contact for copies)

Haroun-Bouhedja F, Lindenmeyer F, Lu H, Soria C, Jozefonvicz J, Boisson-Vidal C; In vitro effects of fucans on MDA-MB231 tumor cell adhesion and invasion; Anticancer Res. 2002 Jul-Aug; 22(4):2285-92.

Cumashi A, Ushakova NA, Preobrazhenskaya ME, D'Incecco A, Piccoli A, Totani L, Tinari N, Morozevich GE, Berman AE, Bilan MI, Usov AI, Ustyuzhanina NE, Grachev AA, Sanderson CJ, Kelly M, Rabinovich GA, Iacobelli S, Nifantiev NE; A comparative study of the anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, antiangiogenic, and antiadhesive activities of nine different fucoidans from brown seaweeds. Glycobiology. 2007 May;17(5):541-5

Haroun-Bouhedja F, Lindenmeyer F, Lu H, Soria C, Jozefonvicz J, Boisson-Vidal C; . In vitro effects of fucans on MDA-MB231 tumor cell adhesion and invasion; Anticancer Res. 2002 Jul-Aug;22(4):2285-92

 Riou D, Colliec-Jouault S, Pinczon du Sel D, Bosch S, Siavoshian S, Le Bert V, Tomasoni C, Sinquin C, Durand P, Roussakis C.; Antitumor and antiproliferative effects of a fucan extracted from Ascophyllum nodosum against a non-small-cell bronchopulmonary carcinoma line; Anticancer Research 1996;16:1213-1218.

Skibola, CF; The effect of Fucus vesiculosus, an edible brown seaweed, upon menstrual cycle length and hormonal status in three pre-menopausal women: a case report; Complement Altern Med. 2004 Aug 4;4 :10



 Deborah Ahern, Ph.D., RD, "Electrolytic Content of Salt-Replacement Seasonings," Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1989; 89 no.7

 Gums JG.; Magnesium in cardiovascular and other disorders; Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2004; 61:1569-76.

Touyz RM.; Magnesium in clinical medicine; Front Biosci. 2004;9:1278-93.

Fox C, Ramsoomair D, Carter C.; Magnesium: its proven and potential clinical significance. South Med J. 2001; 94(12):1195-201.

 Saris NE, Mervaala E, Karppanen H, Khawaja JA, Lewenstam A.; Magnesium. An update on physiological, clinical and analytical aspects, Clin Chim Acta. 2000; 294(1-2):1-26.

Jee SH, Miller ER 3rd, Guallar E, et al; The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials; Am J Hypertens. 2002;15:691-6

Jane Higdon, Ph.D. Linus Pauling Institute Oregon State University Updated in June 2007 by: Victoria J. Drake, Ph.D. Linus Pauling Institute Oregon State University Reviewed in February 2002 by: James E. Leklem, Ph.D. Professor, Emeritus Department of Nutrition and Food Management Oregon State University

 Logeart D, Prigent-Richard S, Jozefonvicz J, Letourneur D.; Fucans, sulfated polysaccharides extracted from brown seaweeds, inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation I. Comparison with heparin for antiproliferative activity, binding and internalization; Eur J Cell Biol. 1997; 74: 376-384.  

Deux JF, Meddahi-Pelle A, Le Blanche AF, Feldman LJ, Colliec-Jouault S, Bree F, Boudghene F, Michel JB, Letourneur D.; Low molecular weight fucoidan prevents neointimal hyperplasia in rabbit iliac artery in-stent restenosis model; Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002; 22: 1604-1609.

Miura T, Nelson DP, Schermerhorn ML, Shin’oka T, Zund G, Hickey PR, Neufeld EJ, Mayer JE Jr.; Blockade of selectin-mediated leukocyte adhesion improves postischemic function in lamb hearts; Ann Thorac Surg. 1996 Nov;62(5):1295-300  

Thorlacius H., Vollmar B.; Seyfert U.T.; Vestweber D.; Menger M.D.; The polysaccharide fucoidan inhibits microvascular thrombus formation independently from P- and l-selectin function in vivo. European Journal of Clinical Investigation September 2000; Volume 30, Number 9, , pp. 804-810(07)


Pereira MS, Mulloy B, Mourao PAS; Structure and Anticoagulant Activity of Sulfated Fucans; Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1999 March 19; 274(12):7656-7667.

Ikeda K, Kitamura A, Machida H, Watanabe M, Negishi H, Hiraoka J, Nakano T., Effect of Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame) on the development of cerebrovascular diseases in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats,
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2003 Jan-Feb;30(1-2):44-8  

H. Ozawa, Y. Gomi, and J. Otsuki; J.Pharm.Soc.Japan 1967; 87, 935


Anti-viral Benefits of Dietary Sea Vegetables

Michael Neushul; Antiviral carbohydrates from marine red algae; Hydrobiologia 1990; 1: 204-205

 J. Helen Fitton, Ph.D; Brown Marine Algae: A Survey of Therapeutic Potentials; Alternative and Complementary Therapies 2/2003  

 Russell Cooper, Charles Dragar, Kate Elliot,, JH Fitton, John Godwin and Ken Thompson; GFS, a preparation of Tasmanian Undaria pinnatifida is associated with healing and inhibition of reactivation of Herpes; MC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2002


Anti-oxidant Benefits of Dietary Sea Vegetables

 Nobutaka Suzukia, Ayako Fujimuraa, Takeshi Nagaib, Iwao Mizumotoc, Toshiaki Itamid, Hideo Hatated, Takashi Nozawaa, Norihisa Katoa, Tateo Nomotoe and Binkoh Yodaf; Antioxidative activity of animal and vegetable dietary fibers; BioFactors IOS Press 2004; 21: 329–333  

 Xianojum Yan, Tadahiro Nagata, and Xiao Fan; Antioxidative activities in some common seaweeds; Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 1998; 52: 253–262

 Yuan, Y. V.; Bone, D. E.; Carrington, M. F.; Antioxidant activity of dulse (Palmaria palmata) extract evaluated in vitro. Food Chemistry 91 2005, 3: 485–494


Pediatric Nutrition and Sea Vegetables

Susanna Cunningham-Rundles and Deborah Ho Lin; Malnutrition and infection in industrialized countries;Pediatric Infectious Diseases Revisited 2007; 117-143  

Bourre JM.; Effects of nutrients (in food) on the structure and function of the nervous system: update on dietary requirements for brain Part 1: micronutrients; J Nutr Health Aging. 2006 ; 10(5):377-85

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